Akken i s yenna Lionel Galand deg useggas 1953 : Wi zṛan ma mači d asaɣ ger isekkilen iwezlanen d isekkilen iɣezfanen ara d isfehmen akken iwata, amek ara naru tamaziɣt.

 

Ma yela d tutlayt taqvaylit, ivan lan isekkilen iwumi asaɣ “corrélation” ger usekkil awezlan azenzaɣ “spirant”, d usekkil aɣezfan aggaɣ “occlusif”, iveggen d s tin n tusna, asekkil azenzaɣ ilaq ad iţwaru s yiwen usekkil , ma yella d asekkil aggaɣ ilaq ad iţwaru s sin isekkilen
Ihi, ad neɛreḍ ad t id nesken deg ayen ara d itevɛen. Am akka, tutlayt taqvaylit tevna γef tanmegla “opposition” ger usekkil awezlan azenzaγ “spirant” d usekkil aɣezfan aggaɣ “occlusif”. Di tazwara, ad d nelhu d isekkilen :
/v/ /bb/- /p/- /d/ /dd/ – /t/ /tt/- /ţ/ /ţţ/- /k/ /kk/- /g//gg/

1- Tanmegla ger isekkilen : /b/ /bb/ /v/ /p/

Acḥal ayagi neţţaru asekkil awezlan azenzaɣ /b/ ma d asekkil aɣezfan aggaɣ /bb/. Maca mara nhedder nesusruy “employer” imesli /v/
Diɣen asekkil awezlan /v/ ur yeţţemgarad ara d usekkil aɣezfan /vv/, acku ur yella ara di teqvaylit.
Maca, imi tusna n tutlayin mači d tusna tufrint “exacte”, iwakken ad yishil umeslay d tira s teqvaylit, ilaq kan sya n tusawent ad neţţaru asekkil awezlan azenzaɣ /v/ ma d asekkil aɣezfan aggaɣ /bb/ :
sverdeɛ /bberdeɛ ; iviw/ebbi ; vurebbu/vururu
yebbi d tiqcert n uɣrum
ɣurwat ad tefγem a y imeẓyanen, ad kwen yeč vururu
Tasureft “exception” : asekkil awezlan /b/ mara yili zdat usekkil /m/ mazal it d aggaɣ : tambult

Asekkil /p/ ur yeṭuqet ara, lant tinḍiwa “variantes” di kra n aẓiyen “régions”.Ma yella di Vgayet sexdamen kan /w/ : tawwurt ; yewwi t
/tawwurt/tappurt/tabburt/taggurt
/yewweḍ/yepweḍ /yebbw eḍ/ yeggeḍ
/lemwarva//lempwarva/ lembwarva/
/emwiwel/empwiwel/ embwiwel/
/n wexam/pwexam/bbwexam/w-wexam/
/n weltma/pweltma/bbweltma/
anwa wa/ampawa/ambwawa/
awalen i d newwi sɣur tefrensist : apiki ;apaki

2- Tanmegla ger /d/ /dd/ /t/ tt/

ḥader/aḥeddad ; adu/ddu ; udem/eddem
udaɣ-t s uɛekkaz
yeddem agelzim γef tuyat is
Tasureft : asekkil awezlan /d/ mara yili zdat isekkilen /l/ neγ /n/ mazal it d aggaγ : amendayer, aldun, anda,
Diγen ilaq ad nemsefham ma yella ad nkemel ad neţţaru /d/ asekkil aggaγ yeţţemgaraden d usekkil /n/ s yiwen neγ s sin isekkilen /dd/ . (iruḥ d – iruḥ n). Ma yela neţkemil s yiwen usekkil ilaq ad neg tasureft akken ad d nesken yemxalaf d umesli azenzaγ /d/ (d argaz)

3- Tanmegla ger isekkilen /t/ /tt/ / /ţ/ /ţţ/

ehtuti/ettutti , tarwa/ttutegga
axam ik yehtuti
yettutti-d ersas d avruri
Asekkil aγezfan yela dima deg urmir usid “aoriste intensif”
ifettel ; yettewttew ; yettuttuy/ neqqar diɣen : yeţtuttuy
Tasureft : asekkil awezlan /t/ mara yili zdat isekkilen /l/ neγ /n/ mazal it d aggaγ : tamelalt, taqjunt
Asekkil /t/ d amasay “porteur” n wunti “féminin”

4- Tanmegla ger isekkilen : /k/ /kk/ /g/ /gg/ :

eks ekkes ; ak akka ; ekmer ekker
Σli n tevlavalt, yeksan aqḍar s tmelalt
aḥviv d aḥviv mi tekmer, mači di tizi n liser
Tasureft : asekkil awezlan /k/ mara yili zdat usekkil /ḥ/ eḥku ; /f/ fak ; /c/ aveckiḍ ; /ɛ/ eɛkef ; /r/ erkeḍ ; /s/ esker ; /v/ ivki ; /n / enkeẓ, mazal it d aggaγ :

gma yegguma ; igig iggi “ : engi neggi ( urmid usid).
ur ḥemleγ gma ur ḥemleγ wi ara t iwten
d averkan am yiggi n uḥriq
Tasureft : asekkil awezlan /g/ mara yili zdat usekkil /v/ evges ; /ɛ/ eɛgez ; /r/ ergel ; /j/ ejgugel mazal it d aggaγ :

5- Tanmegla ger isekkilen imesli ger yiles d tgerjumt : /kw/ /kkw/ ; /gw / /ggw/ ; /bw/ /bbw/ ;/ɣw/ /ɣɣw/. /qw/ /qqw

Ayen iwumi qqaren s tefrensist “vélarisées”
Lan wid, tikwal i t sexdamen, tikwal ala
ek(w)vel, lemk(w)eb ; ek(w)mer /ekk(w)erṭeṭi ; ekk(w)ernenni
lan imekwan i deg ur t sexdamen ara, qqaren : ekvel ; lemkeb ; ekmer ; ekkerṭeṭi ; ekkernenni
Agwi uggwi ; agwni taggwent ; tagwest egg wet
Lan imekwan i deg qqaren yugwem d aman, llan diɣen wid yeqqaren /yugem d aman
Kra n wawalen ekkan-d seg uzar aqvur /w/ : /aweḍ/aggwaḍ ; awi/aggway ; erwel/reggwel

6- Tanmegla ger isekkilen /bw/ /bbw/

embwiwel (amalay “masc.) empwiwel (unti “fém”.)
Asekkil aγezfan yekka d deg wazar aqvur /w/ : /yewwi/yebbw i/yeggw i/ ; ɣebbw el/ɣewwel ; cebbwel/cewwel, cwal
Deg umḍiq n Vgayet mazal iten qqaren kan yewwa, yewwi

7- Tamengla ger Isekkilen /ɣw/ /ɣɣw/qqw

Lan yemḍiqen i yesexdamen ɣw/ /ɣɣw/qqw, llan wiyad ala
abeɣ(w)li, aɣ(w)bel ; taɣ(w)ect ; eɣ(w)ze ; iɣ(w) zeṛ/ iɣezṛan .
Amyag “verbe” ; evɣeḍ /yebɣeḍ (umir) ibeɣɣeḍ/ibeqqeḍ (umir usid)
Ma d amyag uɣal : yuɣal (umir) iteqqwel/yeţţuɣal (umir usid)

8- Tanmegla ger isekkilen : /qw/ /qqw/

sqw erqwer/eqw ejqwej/taqweddimt – / sqerqer/eqejqej/taqeddimt
Ar tagrayt “conclusion” : ama d wid i t yesexdamen tikwal, ama d wid ur t nesexdam ara maḍi, ayagi nezmer ad d nini yusa d kan d amawan (marginal). Iwakken ad tifsus tira n teqvaylit, nezmer ma yela nevγa, ad as nevru sya d tusawent.

9- Tanmegla ger isekkilen /ţ/ /ţţ/ /č/ /ǧ/ /

Asekkil awezlan /ţ/ : tideţ ; tabugatuţ ; tayeţ ;tamerkantiţ
Asekkil aγezfan /ţţ/ : yeṭuqet deg imyagen “verbes” i neseftay “conjuguer” d urmir usid “ aoriste intensif” d tigawt “action” ama tezga : iţţafeg ; ama d tavawt “négation” : ur iţţafeg ara ;
yeţţawi ; yeţţakwer , yeţţargu.
Di Vgayet d kra n tutlayin n tmaziγt n Maroc ur semrasen ara asekkil /ţ/ qqaren :yettawi, yettargu ; yettakwer
Lan wid i yesexdamen kan asekkil /ţ/ ,deg umkan n /t/ : ad ţruḥed ; d ţagi d ţaxamt
Isekkilen /č/ /ǧ/ lan d war asaɣ “hors corrélation”. Ihi imi akka, iwakken ur neṣaẓay ara tira ad ten naru s yiwen usekkil
eǧ ; teǧel ; ajeǧig ; eč ; ečar ”, ajeǧiḍ
cebbeḥ/yeččebbiḥ ; cud/yeččuddu ; cuf/yeččufu .
Tasureft : Maca deg umir usid ad ten neţţaru s sin isekkilen /ţţ/ /čč/
yewwi yas d ajeǧig n tayri
aksum nni yeča t wemcic
yeččufu yas qendur ar tagara ixedeɛ it
Tasureft : aseɣ ger usekkil awezlan /ţ/ d uɣezfan /ţţ/ yella kan deg umir usid
aseɣ ger usekkil awezlan /č/ d uɣezfan /čč/ yella kan deg umir usid.

10- Tanmengla ger isekkilen : /ž /

asekkil /ž/ yella deg wawal averani : Lžayer/Lzayer
ivzeg/ivezzeg/ivežžeg/iţţazeg/ ;
wezil/wežil/ iţţiwzil ;
agezam/ agežam ; agezar/agežar
yegzem/igezzem/igežžem “umir usid”
yegzer/igezzer /igežžer
Asekkil agi /ž/ ur yeṭuqet ara nezmer ad d nini de wer asaɣ. Asekkil agi /ž/yella d tanḍa “variante” n /z/. I tdamsa n tutlayt nezmer ad t nekkes

Isekkilen yelan d war asaɣ

Ulac asaɣ ger usekkil awezlan azenzaɣ d usekkil aɣezfan aggaɣ
isekkilen n tinzert : m/n
amcic mimi tamumuct, amud amaddaz/amudduz ;
inu ; ini, tanina tindi, endef
asekkil ucenfir d tuɣmest /f/ :
tafrara ; afus, ifis, tifest efser ; efsex ;afwad, afexar ;
asekkil asmami “vibrant” /r/
tardast, erfu ; rfufen ;targit, regged ;ergem ; ergel ; erhen ;
asekkil /l/
ili ; tili ; alen ; ul ; tila ; ulac ;alecac ; tililac ; taluft ; alag ; lejlej ; elmed ; alemsir ; alamaḍ ; ilni ; ilindi
asekkil /q/
eqlec ;aqelmun ; aqmamas ; amequn ; iqanan ; qerdec ; taqesult ;aqwir ; tiqit ; sqaqi ; qazem
Ar tagara, i lmend n tdamsa n tutlayt taqvaylit isekkilen agi i yelan d wer asaɣ nezmer ad ten naru kan s yiwen usekkil.

Tufayin “emphatiques “lant d war asaɣ
isekkilen /ḍ/ /ṭ/
aḍiḥan ; ḍil ; aḍen ; anemḍer ; eṭer ; eṭes ; taḍwiqt
asekkil /ṛ/
aṛavuz /ṛuc ; taṛiṛuct ; eṛceḥ ; iṛideḥ ; aɣṛum ; aqeṛu ; eţaṛ ; exṛev ; ečaṛ ; ẓeṛ ; aɛeṛvun ; eɛṛeḍ

Tasureft :mara yili yenteḍ ɣer isekkilen am :/ɣ/ ; /q/, /ḍ/, /x/, /ḥ/, /ţ /ǧ/, /č/ ;/ẓ/, asekkil / ṛ/ ivan yured “prévisible » . Ihi , iwakken ad tifsus tira nezmer ad nemsefham akken ad nekkes taneqiṭ dddaw /r/mara yili erif isekkilen agi
asekkil /ṣ /
tuṣḍa ; taṣefayt ; aṣefṣaf “peuplier”ṣekkek ; ṣelan ; aṣenduḥ ; ṣenṭi, aṣerṣir ; aṣurdi
asekkil /ẓ/
tilemẓit, eẓu ; aẓ ; tiẓeṭ ; eẓḍ ; iẓḍi ; aẓeṭa, tazazaṭ : eẓḍeḥ ; eẓeg ;
asaɣ ger usekkil awezlan d uɣezfan ufay war yeli, ad ten ne ţţaru kan s yiwen usekkil.

Xas ulama, ilaq vnadem ad iḥezev deg ayen yeɛnan tagmi tusnit “recherche scientifique” yeţţusensen “appliquée” i tutlayin, maca ayen ivanen , iqvayliyen n Vgayet zvan “résister” akken iwata mgal asekcem n isekkilen agi ufayen. Nezmer ad d nini ggeten deg sen wid i d yekkan si taɛravt am /ḍ/ /ṭ/

AGZUL “Résumé”

1) Isekkilen iwezlan izenzaɣen “spirants” ad ten neţţaru s yiwen usekkil ma yella d iɣezfanen aggaɣen “occlusifs”ad ten neţţaru s sin isekkilen
2) Isekkilen i yelan war asaɣ ad ten neţţaru kan s yiwen usekkil
3)Ma d isekkilen ufayen lan wid yelan di teqvaylit, am ṣ ẓ ; lan wid i d yekkan si taɛravt am /ḍ/ /ṭ/, cwit cwit eṭfen amkan n usekkil /t/ i sexdamen di Vgayet

Sakina AIT AHMED
Linguiste/Ecrivaine

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